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Can human beings create life?

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发表于 2018-8-3 01:03:03 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
Can human beings create life? In 2010, American scientists created the world's first "artificial life", the mycoplasma of prokaryotes, which caused a sensation. Eight years later, the Chinese Academy of sciences research team and its collaborators have completed the creation of a single - celled eukaryotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae natural sixteen chromosomes artificially created as a complete function of the single chromosome.
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This work shows that the natural complex life system can be simplified by manual intervention, the boundary of natural life can be broken by human beings, and can even create a new life that does not exist in nature.

In 2010, American scientists created the world's first "artificial life", the mycoplasma of prokaryotes, which attracted worldwide attention. Eight years later, the research team of Qin Chung army, a research team of the Key Laboratory of synthetic biology of plant science excellence innovation center / plant physiology and Ecology Institute, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and its collaborators have created the first artificial eukaryotic cells of the single chromosome for the first time. Today, this landmark breakthrough in synthetic biology is published in the international academic journal "nature".

Paul Evans, director of the Chinese region of natural scientific research, commented that the paper "nature" was completed by Chinese scientists independently, showing China's efforts and great achievements in the establishment of sustainable scientific research ecological system, which has opened up a new direction for the exploration of vital basic scientific problems of the origin and evolution of life.

In biology textbooks, natural organisms are divided into eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Eukaryotes contain chromosomes with multiple linear structures, while prokaryotes usually contain only 1 chromosomes of the ring structure. The research team, with 16 chromosomes, a single cell eukaryotic organism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has successfully created a Saccharomyces cerevisiae with only 1 chromosomes through the fusion of fifteen chromosomes after four years of attack. This is the first international case of artificial single chromosome eukaryotic cell.

The leader of the research team, Qin Chung, introduced all the genetic information on the 16 chromosomes, where there was a great change in the structure of the chromosomes, but the cell growth was the same as the original, and the function was almost the same. From the perspective of basic research, a simplified life form has been created.
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The chromosomes carry the genetic information of the growth and reproduction of the life body. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an important model for the study of chromosomal abnormalities. The 1/3 gene is homologous to the human gene with 23 pairs of chromosomes. The research results not only subvert the traditional concept of spatial and temporal expression of chromosomes, but also build a bridge between the genome evolution between prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which opens a new direction for human research on the nature of life.

The news from the Chinese Academy of Sciences showed that the "birth" of monosomal yeast, together with the full artificial synthesis of yeast chromosomes from Chinese scientists, was followed by the artificial synthesis of crystalline bovine insulin in 1960s, and once again, Chinese scholars used a synthetic scientific strategy to answer a major basis in the field of life science. The problem is to establish a bridge between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. This is a vivid embodiment of the concept of "building knowledge" in synthetic biology, and opens up a new direction for the study of the essence of life.

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